By Marjorie Keniston McIntosh
A neighborhood reworked lines the restructuring of Havering among 1500 and 1620 via precise research of demographic styles, the economic climate, faith, social and cultural kinds, and native management and legislations. McIntosh's research, the main complicated and richly drawn portrait of any English neighborhood during this interval, is going past neighborhood background in illuminating the transition from medieval to early modem existence. A neighborhood reworked is the sequel to Professor McIntosh's acclaimed paintings Autonomy and group: The Royal Manor of Havering, 1200-1500, released by way of Cambridge in 1986.
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Extra info for A Community Transformed: The Manor and Liberty of Havering-atte-Bower 1500-1620
4 (P. and J. Clark, 'Social economy'). But Clark and Clark count some lodgers as separate households, thereby dropping the mean. 75 is seen in a mixed sample of 45 English parishes between 1650 and 1749 (Phythian-Adams, Desolation of a city, esp. Table 32, Wall, 'Regional and temporal variations', and Laslett, 'Mean household size'). About four-fifths of all households in Cambridge and outer Canterbury were headed by married men; widows, generally poor, formed the next largest group. The size of Cambridge and suburban Canterbury households w a s related to the income and occupation of their heads, with gentlemen at the top of the scale and innkeepers, brewers, and victuallers leading the trading and craft element.
33 Some came from nearby parishes, often from agricultural communities lying within 10 or 15 miles. Others had covered sizeable distances. There was, for example, a contingent from Wales in the first half of Elizabeth's reign. 34 Richard Robbins, known as Richard Welshman or 'great Richard', worked in Romford in 1579, and a Welsh woman named Katherine was a domestic servant in 1589. Others came from the north of England. 36 Beneath those immigrants who stayed at least temporarily in Havering lay the utterly transient poor.
55 The son of Richard Andrews, a yeoman and alehouse keeper, was to receive half of his father's lands in 1571 if he returned from his voyage. Sir Anthony Cooke's grandson Anthony also spent time on the continent. In 1582 he travelled to the Netherlands and France to gain experience of other countries; in 1584-5 he went to Paris with Henry Stanley, earl of Derby, to invest Henry III with the Order of the Garter. 56 At the end of the later mission, however, he foolishly decided to remain abroad without royal permission in an effort to escape payment of his debts in England.