By Peter H. Wilson
This significant other includes 31 essays by means of major foreign students to supply an outline of the most important debates on eighteenth-century Europe.
- Examines the social, highbrow, financial, cultural, and political alterations that came about all through eighteenth-century Europe
- Focuses on Europe whereas putting it inside of its foreign context
- Considers not only significant western eu states, but in addition the usually ignored nations of jap and northern Europe
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And A. Battagel, “Tax records as an index of Little Ice Age environmental and economic deterioration, from Sunnfjord Fogderi, western Norway 1667–1815,” in C. D. Smith and M. ), Consequences of Climatic Change (Nottingham, 1980). Hoskins, W. , “Harvest ﬂuctuations and English economic history,” Agricultural History, 12 (1968), 28–46. , “Culture and the perception of the environment,” in D. Parkin and E. ), Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment and Development (London, 1992). , The Weather of the 1780s over Europe (Cambridge, 1988a).
It is now acknowledged that the careful analysis of such items can provide an unexpectedly detailed picture of the climate and weather of the time. ” Some of the early research in this ﬁeld was conducted by historians, exemplary amongst which is the work of members of the French Annales school such as Fernand Braudel and Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (1972). On the climatological side, endeavors began earlier, though with little immediate effect. The Swiss scientist Louis Dufour (1870) and his French contemporary Alfred Angot (1885) both recognized the climatological signiﬁcance of documentary sources, as did Charles Brooks (1926) some years later in the UK.
In particular, gender history owes a debt to women’s history, but also to debates in literary theory and anthropology. Of course, women’s history has its own long past, the early stages of which fell into the “women worthies” tradition, but also produced the seminal work of Alice Clark (1982), Ivy Pinchbeck (1930), and Léon Abensour (1923). From the late 1960s, the feminist movement, with its interest in recovering women’s past, gave impetus to women’s history. The feminist political context was a positive inﬂuence, questioning the creation and context of “sex-roles” and recognizing that gender itself was an unstable category.