An Introduction to Video and Audio Measurement by Peter Hodges

By Peter Hodges

What can we degree and why? Peter Hodges explains the reply to this question in approachable language and with transparent illustrations. newbies to the video undefined, in addition to these already proven, will locate this uniquely readable consultant to the fundamentals of a posh topic. development at the good fortune of the 2 prior versions of this well known identify and protecting either analog and electronic video, the 3rd variation contains new sections on audio dimension, excessive definition video, and leading edge ideas of attempt and size.

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13 Multichannel operation using a single circuit. 018 MHz or 18 kHz (3 kHz each channel). 6 x 3 kHz = 18 kHz. So there’s a choice. If we want to send more information in a given time, we either increase the number of circuits or the bandwidth. Both cost money, but the multiplexed single circuit usually wins. How about digitising? 1. The Bell telephone system sent speech over a two-wire circuit, but its limitations were serious. Over long distances attenuation, or signal losses, placed soft talkers at a disadvantage, as it also did for those who spoke with an unfamiliar accent or had a speech impediment.

Now black may not exist in all pictures but it can be defined as a value in the video signal and a voltage value given to it. This reference value of black level is hidden in the sync period of the signal where the display can use it to construct all the tonal values in the picture. As the signal passes through various circuits and systems, it may become subject to extraneous influences that result in the value of black level shifting. The value of black is very precise. Quite small variations can have very considerable impact on the picture reproduction.

Timing standards must be as rigorously adhered to as amplitude values. 8 Measuringthe video signal. These pictures show the relative shift of waveform against graticule. 7 V and sync at -3 V, as indicated by the read-out. The graticule has 10% steps from black at 0% to white at 100%. The time scale is shown along black level in main divisions of 5 k s subdivided into 1 ps. Other markings have specific purposes. 9 Positioning the signal against the graticule. Shift controls are additive inputs to the deflection amplifiers that allow variable DC (positive or negative) to be added to both the signal and timebase deflection drives.

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