By Robert Liddiard
Замки одинадцатого и двенадцатого веков остаются одними из самых видимых символов англо-нормандского мира. Данный сборник впервые объединяет некоторые из наиболее значимых статей в исследованиях замков, при участии специалистов в области истории, археологии и исторических сооружений. Замки остаются спорной темой для научных дебатов, и здесь равный вес придается основополагающим статьям, которые определили изучение предмета, одновременно подчеркивая новые подходы к крепостям англо-нормандской аристократии. Исследования в данной книге следуют в диапазоне от обсуждений жилой и военной роли замка в архитектурной символике до королевского отношения к фортификации баронов. В результате исследование, которое предлагает углубленный анализ строительства замков в одиннадцатом и двенадцатом веках, также затрагивает место англо-нормандских замков в их более широком социальном, архитектурно-политическом контексте.
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In June 1846 Peel was forced out of office as a result of his controversial repeal of the Corn Laws, an act in itself motivated partly by his desire to allow bread prices to fall in Ireland. This proved to be a deeply unfortunate turn of events for Ireland as the resultant Whig ministry, under Lord John Russell, was firmly committed to laissezfaire economic principles. Put simply, this economic philosophy states that governments should not interfere with market forces. In short, Russell believed that to give free food to Ireland would be to risk ruining those whose income depended upon selling food and, The great famine and its legacy, 1845–70 31 even worse, to encourage the peasantry to expect charity and therefore to take no steps to help themselves.
One Catholic was run through the body with a sword or bayonet, and died on the spot. Another had his leg shattered by a musket ball, and is lying, with little hopes of recovery. Several, it is supposed, must have been slightly wounded, as they were fired upon for nearly a mile during their retreat. Source G: From a speech by Revd Henry Cooke, the Presbyterian leader of Protestant opposition to O’Connell’s Repeal movement. Speaking in Belfast, 1841. Look at the town of Belfast. When I was myself a youth I remember it almost a village.
Indeed, recent trends in the historiography of the famine, by Irish so-called revisionist historians at least, have tended to avoid the language of blame altogether. The tone has been cool and dispassionate. Perhaps the leading authority on the famine in the last two decades has been Cormac Ó Gráda and he has treated the famine as something of such multi-factoral complexity that the notion of finding any one group to blame is quickly reduced to an irrelevance. 5 Nothing as potent as Phytophthora infestans had been seen before.