By Jack C. Richards
This widely-used publication provides a transparent description and research of the foremost ways and techniques utilized in moment and international language educating. tools and methods lined contain: grammar translation, the direct technique, situational language educating, the silent approach, overall actual reaction, the average strategy and suggestopedia.
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Extra resources for Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching: A Description and Analysis
Sequencin g is determ in ed by any cO ll s ici crJtion of conte nt, (1II K li oll , o r Ill c:lIIin g which methodology. 1I1 :l illl nillS ilHl'I'l'SI. 67 Approaches & methods in language teaching 17. The teacher controls the learners and prevents them from doing anything that conflicts with the theory. 18. "Language is habit" so errors must be prevented at all costs. 19. Accuracy, in terms of formal correctness, is a primary goal. 20. Students are expected to interact with the language system, embodied in machines or controlled materials 21.
Littlewood 1984: 74) This theory thus encourages an emphasis on practice as a way of developing communicative skills. DeSign Objectives Piepho (1981) discusses the following levels of objectives in a communicative approach: 1. an integrati ve and conten t level (la nguage as a means of expression) 2. a li nguistic and instrumental level (language as a semiotic sys tem and an object of learn in g); 3. an affective level of interpersonal relatio nsh ips and conduct (language as a means of exp ressing va lu es and judgments about oneself a nd others); 4.
3. Certain key structures from the dialogue are selected and used as the basis for pattern drills of different kinds. These are first practiced in chorus and then individually. Some grammatical explanation may be offered at this point, but this is kept to an absolute minimum . 4. The students may refer to their textbook, and follow-up r e<1 din ~,. writin g, or vocabulary activities based on the dia logu e l11<1y be il1ll"odll .... l' d. : heg innin g leve l, writin g is purely imit<1riv c <1lld con s ists 1I1I1 l" "lo re th ~11l or copying out sentences that have been practiced.