By Daniel Grolimund, Kurt Barmettler, Michal Borkovec (auth.), Prof. Dr. Dr. Habil. Fritz H. Frimmel, Dr. Frank Von Der Kammer, Prof. Dr. Hans-Curt Flemming (eds.)
Colloids are recognized to be the customarily overlooked part for the shipping of pollution in aquatic ecosystems. The ebook covers the fundamentals of abiotic colloid characterization, of biocolloids and biofilms, the ensuing shipping phenomena and their engineering facets. the topic is gifted from a world workforce of best experts dedicated to colloidal sciences. The contributions comprise theoretical concerns, effects from version experiments in addition to box experiences. the knowledge given will serve scholars and scientists attracted to the analytical, chemical, microbiological, geological and hydrological facets of fabric shipping in aquatic platforms and soils.
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Additional info for Colloidal Transport in Porous Media
At both pH values (pH 5 and pH 7), in the absence of bentonite colloids the heavy metals were totally adsorbed on the quartz sand surface (Figs. 6). This is in good agreement with the results of transport experiments reported by Schmitt et al. (2003). By the injections of bentonite containing heavy metal 48 G. Metreveli, F. H. Frimmel solutions a colloid facilitated transport for all heavy metals was observed. The breakthrough curves show that the elution volume of the heavy metals correlates well with the elution volume of the bentonite colloids.
Zinc cations were predominantly adsorbed onto the planar sites at both pH values. Due to the competing sorption processes, at pH 7 heavy metal cations were partly displaced from the planar sites to the edge binding sites. The initial heavy metal concentration was chosen similar to the concentrations in natural systems. It is obvious that this concentration (10 µmol/L) was much lower than the total capacity of the surface groups (190 µmol/L for a bentonite concentration of 200 mg/L and 476 µmol/L for a bentonite concentration of 500 mg/L).
A solution of sodium nitrate (Riedel-de Haën) with a concentration of 2 mmol/L was used as a conservative tracer for controlling the hydraulic conditions within the column and for the detection of the pore volume. For the investigation of the colloid facilitated transport of heavy metals solutions of Cu, Pb and Zn in the presence and absence of Na-bentonite were injected into the column. These samples were prepared by using metal stock solutions and a Na-bentonite stock dispersion. The concentration of all metals was set to 10 µmol/L.