By A. Bruce Carlson

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**Extra resources for Communication Systems An Introduction to Signals and Noise in Electrical Communication Bruce Carlson (Solutions_Manual) **

**Example text**

If the length is 4x the diameter, the true inductance is 10% less than the formula. Energy stored in an inductor Energy =^- L i An inductor may be thought of as "storing" current (charge which is moving) compared to a capacitor which stores stationary charge. The energy is actually stored in the magnetic field and is proportional to the current squared. 40 Inductors Current build-up in an inductor + — ΊΓ \ SW1 V1 V2 kl L1 V + When the switch SW1 is in the position shown, VI is connected to the inductor LI.

At this frequency, the reactance of the inductor LI (InfLl) exactly equals the reactance of the capacitor C2 (1/2πΚΓ2). At the resonant frequency, the combination of LI and C2 presents a very high ac impedance to TRl's collector. The ac output voltage is therefore at a maximum. Inductors Transformers A transformer converts electrical energy at one ac voltage to another (usually different) ac voltage at the same frequency. The winding which is energized is called the primary and the winding or windings which receive energy from the primary are called secondaries.

Inductance may be increased by winding wire into a coil and may be increased substantially by winding the coil around a magnetic material such as iron. Inductance is increased in proportion to the number of turns squared. Inductance of a long coil L A / μ = inductance in Henrys = cross sectional area of the coil in square metres = length of the coil in metres = magnetic permeability of the coil's core (=4π x 10 7 for air) This formula is only approximate because it assumes that all the magnetic flux lines link all the turns of the coil.