Corrosion and corrosion control : an introduction to by R Winston Revie; Herbert Henry Uhlig

By R Winston Revie; Herbert Henry Uhlig

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Extra info for Corrosion and corrosion control : an introduction to corrosion science and engineering

Example text

H+, Fe2+) and are always positively charged whether current is drawn from or supplied to the cell. , Cl−, OH−, SO2− 4 ). 3 TYPES OF CELLS There are three main types of cells that take part in corrosion reactions. 1. Dissimilar Electrode Cells. Examples of dissimilar electrode cells include: the dry cell (discussed at the beginning of this chapter), a metal containing electrically conducting impurities on the surface as a separate phase, a copper pipe connected to an iron pipe, and a bronze propeller in contact with the steel hull of a ship.

Account for the corrosion of metals exposed to water, salt solutions, acids, or alkalies. Whenever impurities in a metal constitute the electrodes of local-action cells, their removal, as might be expected, appreciably improves corrosion resistance. Accordingly, purified aluminum and magnesium are much more resistant to corrosion in seawater or in acids than are the commercial varieties of these metals, and high-purity zinc resists dilute hydrochloric acid much better than does commercial zinc. However, it is not correct to assume, as was done many years ago when the electrochemical theory was first proposed, that pure metals do not corrode at all.

For example, in dilute nitric acid, the (100) face of iron is the least reactive crystallographic plane [2]. 3. Salt concentration cell. 4. Differential aeration cell. (anode) by, for example, bubbling nitrogen through the solution. The difference in oxygen concentration produces a potential difference and causes current to flow (Fig. 4). This type of cell accounts for the pronounced damage at crevices, which is called crevice corrosion. Crevices are common in many engineering designs—for example, at the interface of two pipes that are coupled together and at threaded connections.

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