Cryptography And Data Security by Peter Gutmann

By Peter Gutmann

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What RSA has joined, let no man put asunder — Bob Blakley Key Management Key management is the hardest part of cryptography Two classes of keys • Short-term session keys (sometimes called ephemeral keys) – Generated automatically and invisibly – Used for one message or session and discarded • Long-term keys – Generated explicitly by the user Long-term keys are used for two purposes • Authentication (including access control, integrity, and nonrepudiation) • Confidentiality (encryption) – Establish session keys – Protect stored data Key Management Problems Key certification Distributing keys • Obtaining someone else’s public key • Distributing your own public key Establishing a shared key with another party • Confidentiality: Is it really known only to the other party?

500 Names (ctd) No clear plan on how to organise the hierarchy • Attempts were made to define naming schemes, but nothing really worked • People couldn’t even agree on what things like ‘localities’ were Hierarchical naming model fits the military and governments, but doesn’t work for businesses or individuals Solving the DN Problem Two solutions were adopted 1. Users put whatever they felt like into the DN 2. 500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP) adapted for Internet use • Originally Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, now closer to HDAP Provides access to LDAP servers (and hence DSA’s) over a TCP/IP connection • • • • bind and unbind to connect/disconnect read to retrieve data add, modify, delete to update entries search, compare to locate information LDAP (ctd) LDAP provides a complex heirarchical directory containing information categories with sub-categories containing nested object classes containing entries with one or more (usually more) attributes containing actual values Simplicity made complex “It will scale up into the billions.

Alice and/or the CA publish the certificate Role of a CA Original intent was to certify that a key really did belong to a given party Role was later expanded to certify all sorts of other things • • • • • Are they a bona fide business? Can you trust their web server? Can you trust the code they write? Is their account in good standing? Are they over 18? 500 Names (ctd) No clear plan on how to organise the hierarchy • Attempts were made to define naming schemes, but nothing really worked • People couldn’t even agree on what things like ‘localities’ were Hierarchical naming model fits the military and governments, but doesn’t work for businesses or individuals Solving the DN Problem Two solutions were adopted 1.

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