By Sonia Austrian
In this bestselling textbook, participants describe theories of standard human improvement complex through such pioneers as Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud, Jean Piaget, Nancy Chodorow, Daniel Levinson, Erik Erikson, and Margaret Mahler. starting with infancy, toddlerhood, and preschool, every one bankruptcy examines corresponding ideologies pertaining to maturation and improvement in center formative years, early life, maturity, and previous age, whereas acknowledging that not anyone idea can surround all elements of human improvement. In-depth analyses of the psychology and sociology of improvement supply educators and practitioners with insights into the categorical social contexts of human habit and support determine variables and deviations. This moment version good points up to date empirical details, together with extra reviews on varied populations, and a brand new bankruptcy on attachment concept, a becoming niche for state-of-the-art clinicians.
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Additional info for Developmental Theories Through the Life Cycle
Stern’s work derives epistemologically from that of Harry Stack Sullivan and Heinz Kohut. Sullivan’s Interpersonal Theory abandons Freud’s drive concept of motivation and sees capacity for relatedness as the basis for psychosocial development. He proposed zones of relatedness to replace Freud’s erotogenic zones as sources of pleasure, and saw personality as developing through characteristic and habitual interpersonal relations. His was a “people-world” (Monte 1980:379), with feelings tied together by self and other.
Freud, Hartmann, and White about the significance of good mothering, the existence of autonomous ego functions, and the need to develop the capacity for mastery. Throughout Mahler’s formulation, the mother’s role is prominent. She herself must be able to separate from the infant. If the mother is overprotective, has unresolved issues regarding her own separation-individuation, or has unconscious conflicts about her role, then she may impede the infant’s progress toward independence. If the mother appears to need assessment, it should include information about how she has coped with separation and loss in the past as well as the role of this particular child in her life, for some women have greater problems when separating from either the first, or only, child or from the last child.
25 | i n f a n c y, t o d d l e r h o o d , a n d p r e s c h o o l Developmental Lines from Egocentricity to Companionship (A. Freud 1965:78–79; paraphrased) 1. The infant begins with a selfish, narcissistic view of the object world. Other children are either not perceived at all or viewed as disturbing the mother-infant relationship and thus as rivals. 2. Other children are treated as inanimate objects. They can be played with or rejected and no response is expected from them. 3. Children begin to want to involve others as “helpmates,” with the task more important than the relationship.