Dialect and Language Variation by Michael D. Linn

By Michael D. Linn

This anthology emphasizes dialects of yankee English and language edition in the US. The editors current unique essays by way of modern-day prime investigators, together with articles by way of a few of Europe's most sensible dialectologists, got expressly for this paintings.

Important subject matters featured in Dialect and Language edition include:**Dialect theories: linguistic geography, structural and generative dialectology, and language variation.**The nature of social dialects and language version, with awareness to women's speech.**Overview of local dialects and sector studies.**The nature and learn of the connection among ethnicity and dialects, together with Black, Italian, Irish, Chicano, and Jewish ethnic groups.**The program of dialect reviews to education.**Of particular curiosity to dialectologists, sociolinguists, and English language educators and experts, this paintings presents unique perception into**a normal historical past and historical past of dialect theory**an evaluate of nearby geography and region studies**the ideas of social dialects and language edition from a number of perspectives**an exploration of the connection among ethnicity and dialects o causes of the connection among old and language change**a part on how dialects and language version can give a contribution to potent language guide

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The s t r u c t u r a l analysis is thus different from the n o n - s t r u c t u r a l one: (2) and (3) now t u r n out to be possibly "the same" (but only, of course, if the systems are otherwise also identical), while (1) and (4) appear to be different. Structural linguistics requires that the forms of the constituent systems be understood first and foremost in terms of those systems, since the formal units of two non-identical systems a r e , strictly speaking, incommensurable. " Similar s t r u c t u r a l cautions would be required with respect to "synonyms" in the diasystem.

G . on rele­ vant f e a t u r e s , remain to be investigated. One thing is certain: In the s t u d y of language contact and interference (see section 5 ) , a clear picture of differences in inventory is a prerequisite. 9 Differences in distribution cannot be directly inferred from a comparison of the differences in i n v e n t o r y , although the two ordinarily stand in a definite historical relationship. For example, in the diasystem "Yiddish" described above, the phoneme 3 HI in variety 3 usually corresponds to either 2 HI or 2 / 1 / in cognates of variety 2, and to either l / i : / or l / i / in cognates of variety 1 This i s , as it were, a (3/sine/: 2 / s I n e / : 1/sine/ "enmity").

1 ) . The traditional dialectologist naturally wonders what he s t a n d s to gain by the drawing of such "metaphysical" lines. But if dialectological maps are considered diachronically as snapshots of change, and if it can be shown that the difference between phonemes and allophones can be material in determining sound change, it may be possible 26 Uriel Weinreich to convince the dialectologist that the s t r u c t u r a l map is after all more t r u e to the reality of functioning language. Similar a r g u ­ ments, p e r h a p s , could also be persuasive insofar as they are pertinent to grammatical and lexical matters.

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