By R. B. Keey and P. V. Danckwerts (Auth.)
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In so far as a rise in air temperature accompanies a rise in drying Moisture-Solid Relationships 41 rate, the influence of these changes almost counterbalances. Conversely under freeze-drying conditions, as the temperature falls shrinkage becomes less; this phenomenon is illustrated by data (29) for radial-shrinkage coefficients of freeze-dried apples at temperatures between - 5 and -25°C. " Tests (39) with drying thin-walled cylinders of clay show that if moisture-content variations throughout the material are negligible, shrinkage ends abruptly.
D = desorption. Drying: Principles and Practice 28 On average, values of Z* are 25% lower on wetting than on drying. This behaviour illustrates the larger energies associated with the adsorption of the first layer compared with the remainder and may be another reason for sorption hysteresis. The product Xfn gives the maximum hygroscopic-moisture content X^ax and should be independent of direction of sorption for closed-loop hysteresis. 3 shows that this independence is upheld within experimental error.
Since the molecular weights of the commonly occurring solutes are high, the lowering of the vapour pressure is only significant at high concentrations of solute. (7) Hygroscopicity Moisture in a wet material may be merely trapped in spaces between the solid particles. So long as the interstitial radii are greater than 1 μιτι, no significant lowering of the vapour pressure occurs (the Kelvin equation, eq. 6)). The material is said to be non-hygroscopic; examples of such materials include crushed stone and plastic pellets.