Foundations of Security Analysis and Design II by Riccardo Focardi, Roberto Gorrieri

By Riccardo Focardi, Roberto Gorrieri

Security is a swiftly growing to be quarter of computing device technological know-how, with direct and lengthening relevance to real-life purposes, corresponding to web transactions, e-commerce, info defense, community and structures safety, and so forth. Foundations for the research and layout of safety features of such purposes are badly wanted with the intention to validate and turn out their correctness.

This publication provides completely revised models of six instructional lectures given through top researchers in the course of foreign colleges on Foundations of defense research and layout, FOSAD 2001/2002, held in Bertinoro, Italy, in September 2001 and September 2002. The lectures are dedicated to:

- Formal techniques to Approximating Noninterference Properties

- the main institution Problem

- Name-Passing Calculi and Cryptoprimitives

- class of defense homes; community Security

- Cryptographic Algorithms for Multimedia Traffic

- protection for Mobility

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Initially, a formulation of probabilistic covert channel was proposed in [McL90,Gra90], and Two Formal Approaches for Approximating Noninterference Properties 39 later on in [Gra92] and in [GS92,SG95]. More recently, in [SS00] the same intuition has been rephrased in the setting of an imperative language with dynamic thread creation, where, as a novelty, a probabilistic notion of bisimulation is used to formalise a security condition. In [Smi01], a type system is presented that aims to ensure secure information flow in a simple multi threaded imperative programming language running under a uniform probabilistic scheduler.

Instead, after n experiments during which the high-level Two Formal Approaches for Approximating Noninterference Properties 35 P τ h p 1−p l . 0 + h . 0 l’. 0 l Fig. 10. Example of probabilistic information flow user does not interact with P , it turns out that the number of l that have occurred is n. Obviously, by observing the relative frequencies “on the long run” of the observable results, we have that P \ATypeH and P/ATypeH will differ by exactly a factor p. That means if an external observer executes the system (under one of the two scenarios) “infinitely often”, then it can determine whether or not the high-level user was interfering.

Two Formal Approaches for Approximating Noninterference Properties Bra02. BA03. BB00. vBW01. BHK01. CKV00. CT02. CHM02. dDP95. DGJP99. DGJP02. DHW01. DHW02a. DHW02b. DHW03a. 41 M. Bravetti. Specification and Analysis of Stochastic Real-Time Systems. D. Thesis, University of Bologna (Italy), 2002. it/˜bravetti M. Bravetti and A. Aldini. Discrete Time Generative-reactive Probabilistic Processes with Different Advancing Speeds. Theoretical Computer Science 290(1):355–406, 2003. M. Bravetti and M. Bernardo.

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